What should you do if someone goes into cardiac arrest? (2022)

Every year 30,000 people have a cardiac arrest in the UK. If someone is unresponsive and you find they are not breathing, they could be in cardiac arrest. In these situations, it's understandable why we panic and become flustered. However, it's vital we can spot the signs and know exactly what to do to ensure someone has the best chance of survival.

What is cardiac arrest?

A cardiac arrest is when the heart stops beating suddenly, and stops pumping blood around the body to your organs, including the brain. Without treatment, a person will die within minutes.

A cardiac arrest can happen to anyone, anywhere, at any time; however, around 80% happen in the home. The average age of someone having a cardiac arrest is 66 years and they are more common in men than in women.

How can you tell if someone is having a cardiac arrest?

Signs of a cardiac arrest
These are if someone is:

  • Unresponsive.
  • Not breathing normally.
  • Showing no movement or signs of life.

The main causes of a cardiac arrest

  • Aheart attack.
  • Cardiomyopathy.
  • Congenital heart disease.
  • Inflammation of the heart muscle.
  • Heart valve disease.

Resuscitation Council UK explains that a cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack.

While a cardiac arrest is the heart stopping beating altogether, a heart attackoccurs when one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked. If this is left untreated and the muscle of the heart is deprived of vital blood, some of that muscle will die because it is not getting enough oxygen.

A serious heart attack can lead to a cardiac arrest.

A cardiac arrest may also be the result of a drug overdose, electrocution, losing a lot of blood or experiencing a severe drop in oxygen levels.

(Video) Cardiac Arrest: The 3 things you should do when someone doesn't have a pulse

What should you do when someone goes into cardiac arrest?

It is vital to act immediately if you see someone go into cardiac arrest, as every second counts. For every minute without CPR or defibrillation, a person's chances of survival decrease by up to 10%.

"This is something we want to see change. But to increase survival rates, we need people to recognise cardiac arrest quickly and know how to do CPR," says Resuscitation Council UK.

They stress that the most important thing to do initially is to call for help and ring 999.

The primary survey

If you find someone has collapsed, you should perform a primary survey to quickly assess the situation and what you need to do. You can remember each stage with DR ABC: Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing and Circulation.

Before approaching the casualty, check your surroundings and make sure the area is safe.

Check if the person is responsive or unresponsive. Introduce yourself as you walk over, asking them questions. Kneel down next to them and shake their shoulders gently, asking what happened. Tell them to open their eyes, and if they can do so or can give another gesture, they are responsive. Otherwise, they are unresponsive and should be treated quickly.

Check that the person's airway is open and clear. Open their airway by placing one hand on their forehead to tilt their head back, and two fingers on your other hand to lift their chin. If they remain unresponsive, move straight on to check their breathing.

Check if the casualty is breathing normally. Because of the current COVID-19 pandemic, you should avoid the standard practice of placing your ear next to their mouth to listen and feel for breathing. Instead, look down at their body to see if their chest moves, and spend 10 seconds listening for breaths or put your hand close to their mouth to see if you can feel their breath on your hand.

If they remain unresponsive, call 999 for emergency help and tell the call handler you are with someone who is not breathing. You should start CPR straightaway, and the call handler can tell you where the nearest defibrillator is. If the casualty is breathing, move on to circulation.

Only if the person is breathing should you move on to check circulation. Otherwise (as in the case of cardiac arrest), move straight on to performing CPR.

(Video) Dr. Simpson Demonstrates What To Do When Someone Has A Heart Attack | Megyn Kelly TODAY

How to perform CPR

COVID-19 precautions

Following the pandemic, the way you go about performing CPR might be different to normal.

Resuscitation Council UK highlights the risk of cross infection, particularly when CPR is carried out on an unknown victim and associated especially with giving rescue breaths.

"Normally, this risk is very small and is set against the inevitability that a person in cardiac arrest will die if no assistance is given," they say.

If COVID-19 is suspected, inform the call handler when you ring 999. You should wear personal protective equipment (PPE), such as a mask, if you are able to.

To minimise the risk of infection, follow the below guidance:

  • Do not place your face close to the casualty's. If your primary survey shows they are unresponsive and not breathing, shout for help and call 999 or 112 for emergency help while you perform CPR. Do not leave the person by themself, and ask a helper to fetch a defibrillator. If you are alone, allow an ambulance to bring one.
  • Before beginning CPR, place a towel or item of clothing over the patient's nose and mouth.
  • To perform CPR, kneel down next to the casualty and place the heel of your hand in the centre of their chest. Interlock your fingers with your other hand on top of the first. Do not touch the ribs.
  • Next, keeping your arms straight and leaning over the person, press down hard by 5-6 cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to rise back up. You can do this to the beat of the song Staying Alive to get the correct rhythm.
  • Do not give rescue breaths.
  • Continue performing CPR until the defibrillator asks you to pause while it re-analyses and gives another shock if needed, a paramedic arrives and gives you instructions, or the person shows signs of life.

After performing compression-only CPR, you should wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. It's also advisable to seek advice from a medical adviser.

Using an automated external defibrillator (AED)

When a helper fetches a defibrillator, ask them to switch it on and take the pads out while you carry on performing CPR. Remove or cut through the casualty's clothing and wipe away any sweat to attach the pads on their bare chest. The first pad should be on the upper right below the collar bone, with the second on the left side below the under arm. The voice of the defibrillator will instruct you with what to do.

The defibrillator will analyse the casualty's heart rhythm and tell you when a shock is needed. You should tell others to stand back while you use the defibrillator. After the shock has been given, the defibrillator will tell you to continue CPR for two minutes before it re-analyses.

If the defibrillator tells you that a shock is not needed, continue with CPR for two minutes before the defibrillator re-analyses.

If the casualty begins to display signs of being responsive, such as coughing, opening their eyes, speaking, or normal breathing, put them in the recovery position. Leave the defibrillator attached and monitor their level of response, prepared to give CPR again if necessary.

(Video) Heart Attack Symptoms & How to Treat a Heart Attack - First Aid Training - St John Ambulance

What is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death?

Every year in the UK, 100,000 people die of a sudden cardiac arrest, making it the nation's bigg...

"The chances of someone surviving a cardiac arrest are highest when the cardiac arrest is witnessed, a bystander starts CPR and a public access defibrillator is used.

"Sadly, currently fewer than 10% of people who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survive to hospital discharge. If more members of the public recognised someone in cardiac arrest and acted immediately, survival rates would improve. That's why we encourage everyone to learn CPR," says Resuscitation Council UK.

What should you do if you experience heart attack symptoms while alone?

If you go into cardiac arrest, you will be unconscious and not breathing normally, so you won't be able to call for help yourself.

As a heart attack can lead to a cardiac arrest, if you are experiencing symptoms of a heart attack, call 999.

The symptoms of a heart attack

  • Chest pain.

    (Video) Cardiac Arrest - what happens

  • Feelings of tightness, squeezing or pressure in the centre of the chest.
  • Pain travelling from the chest to other body parts, such as the arms, jaw or abdomen.

  • Feeling faint.

  • Sweating.

  • Difficulty breathing.

  • Feeling or being sick.

  • Coughing.

  • Wheezing.

  • Intense feelings of anxiety - similar to a panic attack.

What might the treatment process be for cardiac arrest?

Resuscitation Council UK stresses how important it is for every step in the chain of survival to be put in place:

  • The early recognition of a cardiac arrest.
  • Early CPR.
  • Early defibrillation.
  • Access to post-resuscitation care.

The aims of post-resuscitation care are to optimise a person's ventilation and circulation, preserve their organ and tissue function, and maintain their blood glucose levels.

(Video) What is a cardiac arrest?

Can cardiac arrest be prevented?

"A sudden cardiac arrest can happen without warning. Most underlying cardiac issues that cause arrhythmias are undiagnosed, as individuals don't show signs and symptoms before their cardiac arrest.

"For those with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or kidney disease it's about good health promotion and a healthy lifestyle to help reduce the risks," says Resuscitation Council UK.

Some general tips for keeping your heart healthy are:

  • Eat a balanced diet.
  • Stay physically active.
  • Quit smoking
  • Drink alcohol in moderation.
  • Control your cholesterol and blood pressure.
  • Manage your stress.

Here’s what you need to know about cardiac arrest, including how it differs from heart attack and heart failure, causes, risk factors, and prevention.

Cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac arrest, is when your heart suddenly stops beating.. Most people who have cardiac arrest also have coronary artery disease, or ischemic heart disease.. That can cause a heart attack that hurts your heart’s cells and electrical system.. Major blood loss or serious lack of oxygen Intense physical activity if you already have a heart problem Heart defects you’re born with Structural changes in your heart, either from health problems or an infection Too little potassium or magnesium in your blood. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can thicken your heart muscle, which lessens blood flow through your heart.. Unlike cardiac arrest, your heart usually keeps beating during a heart attack.. While these are two distinct conditions, they’re also linked: a heart attack can disrupt your heart’s electrical system and lead to cardiac arrest.. Heart failure is serious, but it doesn’t mean your heart has stopped.. Your chances of cardiac arrest are highest if have heart disease.. Have a personal or family history of arrhythmias Are an older male Smoke or misuse drugs or alcohol Have had one or more heart attacks Have diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure, or kidney disease Have obesity or aren’t very active. Serious heart disease Cardiac arrest or a heart attack Repeat arrhythmias or other electrical problems with your heart Certain neuromuscular disorders. You can’t always prevent cardiac arrest, but you can make some lifestyle changes to lower your chances of heart disease or serious events like a heart attack.. Quit smoking to lower your odds of heart disease and make heart attack recovery easier.

Learn how to do CPR with these five simple steps. Discover how to do hands-only CPR if you don't want to give rescue breaths.

It causes the person to fall unconscious and stop breathing.. unconscious and not breathing unconscious and not breathing properly.. Don’t waste time checking for a pulse – if someone is unresponsive and not breathing or not breathing normally then call 999 and start CPR.. Learn to do CPR and use a defibrillator in just 15 minutes on your mobile phone or tablet with our RevivR™ CPR Training.. Someone having a cardiac arrest will either not be breathing or they won’t be breathing normally.. If the person is not breathing or not breathing normally:. Keep going until professional help arrives and takes over, or the person starts to show signs of regaining consciousness, such as coughing, opening their eyes, speaking, or breathing normally.. Hands only CPR is the same as usual CPR but without rescue breaths.. If there's a chance the person in cardiac arrest has COVID-19, lay a cloth or towel over their mouth and nose and do hands-only CPR until emergency help gets there.. If you do want to give rescue breaths, you can give 2 after 30 pumps of the chest.. A person having a heart attack is usually still conscious and breathing.

Tips for dealing with estrangement from siblings, friends, others. Also contains links especially for parents with estranged adult children.

If you’re estranged from an adult child, a sibling or someone in your social circle, and the estrangement is their choice rather than yours, you’re probably feeling rejected.. Rejection is a powerful emotion that can lead to all sorts of defensive behavior , which in turn can further alienate the rejecting person.. No matter what the history, cause or present state of your estrangement from the other person, one thing is certain: Trying to convince them verbally that they’re wrong to reject you is a losing strategy .. It hurts to think about being rejected at all, and to accept that there’s a reason you were rejected is one of the hardest things any of us can do.. However, it’s also necessary if you want to have a relationship with the person again.. Is it a relationship with this person that you truly desire, or do you simply need them to know that they’re wrong to reject you?. If it is truly a relationship that you want with this person who doesn’t seem to want one with you anymore, your options are limited , but you do have them.. Your story is not interesting right now to the person who rejected you.. Realize that the person who cut you off is hurting, even if they don’t act like it.. Accept the new reality of your life without that person in it.. Categories Estrangement , Relationships Tags estrangement , Estrangement from adult child Post navigation

Surviving a heart attack requires that you know the signs of a heart attack and seek immediate medical help the moment you might be having one.

This is largely determined by which coronary artery is blocked, where in the artery the blockage occurs, and how much time passes before the artery can be re-opened.. Of these, 605,000 are a first heart attack.. Anyone who has risk factors for coronary artery disease ought to be alert to these symptoms.. According to the CDC, 47% of Americans have at least one of the three main risk factors for heart disease: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking.. If readings are high, you may be able to lower them with diet and physical activity, or your healthcare provider may recommend medications to help reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke.

PulsePoint helps create an informed and engaged community that drives a “Culture of Action,” a key strategy in strengthening the Chain of Survival for cardiac arrest victims.

In addition, PulsePoint has retained Page, Wolfberg & Wirth, LLC to assist agencies understand legal issues related to the implementation of PulsePoint.. In addition, the app is only activated for incidents occurring in public places furthering the likelihood that others will be present (only off-duty professional responders are notified of residential cardiac arrest incidents).. “…a person, who, in good faith, lends emergency care or assistance without compensation at the place of an emergency or accident, and who was acting as a reasonable and prudent person would have acted under the circumstances present at the scene at the time the services were rendered, shall not be liable for any civil damages for acts or omissions performed in good faith.”. Although PulsePoint is commonly thought of as the “CPR app,” its importance and utility to the community goes much deeper.. Achieving the goal of PulsePoint responders routinely beginning CPR and retrieving a nearby AED prior to the arrival of advanced care requires a significant number of local app users.. Real time incident information provides users with confidence that the app is reliably connected to the local dispatch system.. The mission of the non-profit PulsePoint Foundation is to help communities improve bystander CPR engagement and public AED use through the use of an innovative mobile app.. We are confident that the funds allocated for a “CPR-needed only” deployment of PulsePoint would have more impact if directed toward traditional citizen CPR training and public AED programs.. Typically PulsePoint queries public data sources such as the Residential/Commercial Indicator (RDI) from the USPS (PulsePoint uses the USPS address validation API from SmartyStreets along with other sources such as the Google Places API to make this determination.

Knowing the right AED pad placement could be the key to saving someone’s life. Learn the correct pad placement for adults, children, pregnancy, and more.

However, the general rule is to position one pad over the upper right side of the patient’s chest and the other on the lower left side of the patient’s chest (or on the left side of the rib cage).. Using a set of child pads or a child setting (to adjust the energy level for a pediatric patient), place one pad in the center of the baby’s chest and the other in the center of the baby’s upper back.. Just as with an infant, place one pad in the center of the child’s chest and the other pad in the center of the child’s upper back, making sure that the pads don’t touch.. In this case, there is no need for modification, so apply one pad to the upper right side of the chest and the other on the lower left side of the chest, on the left side of the patient’s rib cage as normal.. If the pacemaker is installed in the upper right side of the patient’s chest, place the first pad at least one inch below or to the side of the pacemaker and the second pad on the left side as described.. Instead of placing the defibrillator pads on the center of the chest and back, place one pad just below the left nipple and the second pad on the left side of the back, directly below the scapula (informally known as the “wing bone”).

Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter got them to hospital, fast. Here's what happened first.

His mum, Jade Thorburn, is sharing the family's story in support of the Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter's latest fundraiser.. The oil, which also splashed the 1-year-old's back and side, caused mild first-degree thermal burns on and under his feet, with Xavier then having to be flown by rescue helicopter to Waikato Hospital for treatment.. When ambulance officers arrived, they told the couple the decision had already been made to call Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter so Xavier could be flown to hospital, Thorburn says.. The helicopter also halved the time it would've taken to reach Waikato Hospital by road, with Xavier in hospital 24 minutes after take-off.. The sound of the Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter overhead was "fabulous", says Bruce Tomlinson of the moment help came from above after he rolled his tractor.. Forty minutes later the "wonderful" crew from St John Ambulance reached him and, soon after that, he heard the welcome sound of the Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter.. "I'm sorry", she says, voice catching, when asked about her helpers, including the crew of a Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter who flew her to Auckland City Hospital, a journey she barely remembers.

Every year in America nearly 800,000 people have a heart attack -- and the majority of them are men. Here's how to respond.

Heart attacks most commonly occur in patients with some form of heart disease.. A heart attack may result in sudden cardiac arrest, where the heart stops beating, but most heart attacks are survivable.. While many heart attacks are not fatal, the damage that they cause has lasting effects that may directly lead to further heart problems or may increase the risk of future heart attacks and other conditions.. Congestive heart failure (a progressive condition where the heart no longer pumps efficiently) Irregular, sometimes fatal, heart rhythms Increased risk of stroke More heart attacks. While it is certainly possible for anyone of any age to have a heart attack due to congenital heart defects, drug use, or other causes, there are certain factors that increase the risk of a heart attack.. Most are caused by underlying heart disease; therefore, the risk factors for a heart attack are mostly the same as for heart disease.. Angina is not a heart attack, but it is a sign of underlying heart disease and a warning sign of a heart attack.. A knowledgeable bystander who recognizes when someone may be having a heart attack is the first and most important step in what the American Heart Association refers to as the “Chain of Survival.” Without the bystander or the patient recognizing the symptoms and deciding to act, the other links in the chain of survival cannot be put into action.. The compressions performed in CPR manually force the heart to pump blood to the body, providing oxygen to the brain and other vital organs, until the heart can be jumpstarted with an electric shock from an AED or by EMS or hospital staff with advanced heart monitors and drugs such as adrenaline (epinephrine).. For bystanders, the common advice now is to perform “hands-only CPR”; unlike traditional CPR, hands-only CPR does not involve “mouth-to-mouth” or other means of breathing for the patient, but chest compressions only.. The AED will direct you to stop CPR if it is being performed and to not touch the patient while it analyzes the electrical rhythm of the patient’s heart.. (A 12-lead can also detect irregular heart rhythms and a wide assortment of conditions other than a heart attack, so they are widely used in EMS and hospital settings for more than just suspicion of a heart attack.). If the patient is in cardiac arrest when EMS arrives, they will take over CPR and connect the patient to their heart monitor, which has an advanced version of an AED.. Once the patient is at the hospital and stabilized, blood tests will be performed to look for certain enzymes and hormones released by the heart during a heart attack.

Increasingly shocking evidence of the impacts of what Ed Dowd suggests we should start calling a "mass democide" (death by government) continues to emerge.

Each unit, sometimes multiple times a night.. Turns out, looking at charts, they are reporting vax/boosters but IT'S IN THE NURSING NOTES WHERE PTS ARE REPORTING IT, and must be documented as a patient communication to Nursing .. Long Covid is only term allowed, no vax injury .. In ED, pt issues are discussed in a kind of code where it concerns vax injury as probable cause.. [4:16 PM, 5/2/2022] Ravi: Wow, that is terribly sad to hear on multiple levels Pierre.


1. How to react to sudden cardiac arrest
(Philips Healthcare)
2. Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest | Cedars-Sinai
3. What's the difference between a heart attack and a cardiac arrest?
(British Heart Foundation)
4. How to Respond to Sudden Cardiac Arrest
5. Chris Solomons Sudden Cardiac Arrest Rescue - BBC Helicopter Heroes
(Arrhythmia Alliance)
6. Simon’s Story – Surviving Sudden Cardiac Arrest

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